• Provides all you need to know about the safe and humane handling and restraint of animals.

    Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals takes a holistic approach to the handling of a wide variety of animal species. This comprehensive resource offers a thorough overview of how to safely handle and restrain a number of commonly encountered species including dogs, cats, small mammals, exotic pets, horses and farm animals. Each chapter discusses the behaviour of the species and then outlines the appropriate handling and restraint methods, including any equipment required, multiple explanatory photographs, and useful further reading.

    • Covers a wide range of species commonly encountered by veterinary staff and those working within animal industries
    • Includes key points and self-assessment questions at the end of each chapter, and a glossary of terms
    • Ideal for students of any animal-related degree or diploma programme, including veterinary medicine, veterinary nursing, and animal studies and husbandry

    Written for students and professionals who work with animals, Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals: A Comprehensive Guide encompasses all aspects of handling and physical restraint, including biosecurity and welfare issues.

  • Contributors xv

    Acknowledgement xvii

    1 Biosecurity and Personal Equipment for Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals 1
    Stella J. Chapman

    1.1 Transmission of Disease 1

    1.1.1 Zoonoses 1

    1.1.2 Carriers 3

    1.2 Infection Control 3

    1.2.1 Biosecurity 3

    1.2.2 Effective Cleaning and Disinfection 3

    1.3 Assessing the Risk 4

    1.3.1 Standard Operating Procedures 5

    1.4 Personal Hygiene 5

    1.4.1 Handwashing 6

    1.4.2 Signs 7

    1.5 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 7

    1.5.1 General Points 8

    1.5.2 Working with Horses 9

    Key Points 10

    Self-assessment Questions 10

    References 11

    Further Reading 11

    2 Welfare Considerations for the Handling and Restraint of Animals 13
    Stella J. Chapman

    2.1 The Human–Animal Bond: Domestication as a Consideration of Welfare 13

    2.2 Welfare Considerations 14

    2.2.1 The Five Needs/Freedoms and Reference to Animal Handling and Restraint 14

    2.3 Types of Restraints and Implications for Welfare 15

    2.3.1 Dogs 16

    2.3.2 Horses 16

    2.4 Stress and Implications for Handling and Restraint 17

    2.4.1 Fear 17

    2.4.2 Novel Events 17

    2.4.3 Previous Experience 17

    2.4.4 Selection for Behavioural Traits 18

    2.4.5 The Importance of Training to Improve Handling and Animal Welfare 18

    Key Points 18

    Self-assessment Questions 19

    References 19

    3 Handling and Restraint of Dogs 21
    Susan M. Phillips and Stella J. Chapman

    3.1 Canine Behaviour 22

    3.1.1 Genetic Influences on Behaviour (Nature) 22

    3.1.2 Environmental Influences on Behaviour (Nurture) 23

    3.1.3 Canine Communication 24

    3.1.4 Canine Aggression 25

    3.2 Handling and Restraint of Dogs 25

    3.2.1 Approaching a Dog 28

    3.2.2 Kennelling a Dog 29

    3.2.3 Moving Around the Premises 29

    3.2.4 Physical Restraint 29

    3.2.5 Lifting 34

    3.3 Ancillary Equipment 38

    3.3.1 Collar and Lead 38

    3.3.2 Slip Lead 38

    3.3.3 Harness 40

    3.3.4 Halters 40

    3.3.5 Muzzles 40

    3.3.6 Catchers 41

    3.3.7 Stretchers, Trolleys and Blankets 42

    3.4 Training for Restraint 42

    3.5 Special Considerations 43

    3.5.1 Handling and Restraint of Puppies 43

    3.5.2 The Geriatric Dog 43

    3.5.3 Dealing with an Uncooperative or Aggressive Dog 44

    Key Points 44

    Self-assessment Questions 44

    References 45

    Further Reading 46

    4 Handling and Restraint of Cats 47
    Susan M. Phillips and Stella J. Chapman

    4.1 Feline Behaviour 48

    4.1.1 Social Structure 48

    4.1.2 Communication 48

    4.1.3 Visual Communication 48

    4.1.4 Olfactory Communication 51

    4.1.5 Behaviour Responses 52

    4.1.6 How this can Affect Handling 52

    4.2 Handling and Restraint of Cats 52

    4.2.1 Moving around the Premises 53

    4.2.2 Removing Cats from Carriers and Cages 53

    4.2.3 Placing Cats in Carriers and Cages 54

    4.3 Physical Restraint 54

    4.3.1 Lifting and Carrying Cats 54

    4.3.2 Restraint in Standing Position 55

    4.3.3 Restraint in Sitting Position 55

    4.3.4 Restraint in Sternal Recumbency 56

    4.3.5 Restraint in Lateral Recumbency 57

    4.3.6 Restraint for Examination of the Head 57

    4.3.7 Scruffing 57

    4.4 Ancillary Equipment 57

    4.4.1 Towels 58

    4.4.2 Muzzles 59

    4.4.3 Gloves and Gauntlets 59

    4.4.4 Cat Bags 59

    4.4.5 Nets 60

    4.4.6 Cat Grabber/Snare 61

    4.4.7 Crush Cages 61

    4.5 Training for Restraint 61

    4.6 Special Considerations 62

    4.6.1 Handling and Restraint of Kittens: Socialization 62

    4.6.2 Behavioural Changes Associated with Ageing 62

    4.6.3 Dealing with an Aggressive of Uncooperative Cat 62

    Key Points 63

    Self-assessment Questions 64

    References 64

    Further Reading 65

    5 Handling and Restraint of Rabbits 67
    Bridget Roberts and Stella J. Chapman

    5.1 Behaviour of Rabbits 68

    5.1.1 Communication 68

    5.2 Handling and Restraint of Rabbits 68

    5.2.1 Basics 69

    5.2.2 Approach and Capture of a Rabbit 69

    5.2.3 Lifting a Rabbit into a Basket 71

    5.2.4 Restraint of a Rabbit on a Table 73

    5.2.5 Restraint for Sexing or Examination of the Abdomen 75

    5.2.6 Restraint for Aggressive Rabbits 76

    5.2.7 Alternative Restraint Methods for Rabbits 77

    5.2.8 Towel Wrap or ‘Bunny Burrito’ 77

    5.2.9 Tonic Immobilization 78

    5.3 Aggression 79

    5.3.1 Aggression as a Normal Behaviour 80

    5.3.2 Aggression as an Abnormal Behaviour 81

    5.3.3 Preventing and Minimizing Aggressive Behaviour 81

    Key Points 82

    Self-assessment Questions 82

    References 82

    Further Reading 83

    6 Handling and Restraint of Rodents 85
    Bridget Roberts and Stella J. Chapman

    6.1 General Species Information 85

    6.1.1 Guinea Pigs 85

    6.1.2 Rats 86

    6.1.3 Mice 86

    6.1.4 Hamsters 86

    6.1.5 Gerbils 87

    6.2 Behaviour of Rodents 87

    6.2.1 Anatomical Considerations 87

    6.2.2 Social Behaviour 87

    6.2.3 Communication 88

    6.3 Handling and Restraint of Small Rodents 88

    6.3.1 General Guidelines 88

    6.3.2 Points to Consider 90

    6.3.3 Mice 90

    6.3.4 Hamsters and Gerbils 90

    6.4 Handling and Restraint of Rats 94

    6.4.1 Approach 94

    6.4.2 Capture 94

    6.4.3 General Table Restraint 94

    6.4.4 Restraint for Sexing or Examination of the Abdomen 95

    6.4.5 Additional Methods of Restraint 96

    6.4.6 Aggression 97

    6.5 Handling and Restraint of Guinea Pigs 98

    6.5.1 Approach 98

    6.5.2 Capture 99

    6.5.3 General Table Restraint 100

    6.5.4 Restraint for Sexing or Examination of the Abdomen 102

    6.5.5 Carrying a Guinea Pig 102

    6.5.6 Aggression in Guinea Pigs 102

    Key Points 103

    Self-assessment Questions 104

    References 104

    Further Reading 105

    7 Handling and Restraint of Ferrets 107
    Bridget Roberts and Stella J. Chapman

    7.1 Behaviour of Ferrets 107

    7.1.1 Communication 108

    7.2 Handling and Restraint of Ferrets 108

    7.2.1 General points 108

    7.2.2 Approach 108

    7.2.3 Capture 109

    7.2.4 General Table Restraint 110

    7.2.5 Restraint for Sexing and Examination of the Abdomen 110

    7.2.6 Restraint of Aggressive Ferrets 110

    7.2.7 Use of Harnesses 110

    Key Points 111

    Self-assessment Questions 112

    References 112

    Further Reading 113

    8 Handling and Restraint of Horses and Donkeys 115
    Stella J. Chapman and Krista M. McLennan

    8.1 Equine Behaviour 116

    8.1.1 Temperament 116

    8.1.2 Communication 117

    8.1.3 Key Differences Between Horses and Donkeys 119

    8.1.3.1 In General 119

    8.1.3.2 How Donkey Behaviour Can Affect Handling 119

    8.1.3.3 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect when Handling Donkeys 120

    8.2 How to Approach a Horse/Donkey 120

    8.3 How to Put on a Head Collar and Lead in Hand 121

    8.3.1 How to Put a Head Collar on a Horse in the Stable 121

    8.3.2 How to Put a Head Collar on a Donkey in the Field 124

    8.3.3 Quick Release Knot 124

    8.3.4 How to Lead in Hand 127

    8.4 Physical Restraint 130

    8.5 Methods and Equipment 130

    8.5.1 Head Collar 130

    8.5.2 Bridle 131

    8.5.3 Chiffney Bit 131

    8.5.4 Twitch 131

    8.5.5 Stocks 134

    8.5.6 Tail Restraint 135

    8.5.7 Physical Restraint of Donkeys 137

    8.6 Training for Restraint 139

    8.6.1 Training Donkeys for Restraint 141

    8.7 Handling and Restraint of Foals 144

    8.7.1 Development of Behaviour 144

    8.7.2 Restraint of Foals 146

    8.8 Handling and Restraint of Stallions 149

    Key Points 149

    Self-assessment Questions 149

    References 150

    Further Reading 151

    9 Handling and Restraint of Cattle 153
    Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

    9.1 Behaviour 153

    9.1.1 Dairy and Beef Cattle 153

    9.2 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Good Effect When Handling 154

    9.2.1 Cattle as a Prey Animal 154

    9.2.2 Flight Zone and Point of Balance 155

    9.2.3 Cattle as a Social Species 156

    9.2.4 Previous Experience 156

    9.2.5 Cattle Signals to Look For 157

    9.3 How to Approach and Move Cattle 157

    9.3.1 Approaching and Moving a Group of Cattle 158

    9.3.2 Approaching and Moving the Individual 158

    9.3.3 Moving a Calf 160

    9.4 Handling Facilities 160

    9.4.1 Special Note: Bulls and Calves; Use of Dogs and Vehicles 163

    9.5 How to Restrain Cattle 166

    9.5.1 Physical Restraint 166

    9.5.2 Roping or Casting 173

    9.6 Training for Restraint 176

    9.7 Special Considerations 176

    Key Points 177

    Self-assessment Questions 177

    References 177

    Further Reading 178

    10 Handling and Restraint of Small Ruminants 179
    Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

    10.1 Behaviour 180

    10.1.1 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect when Handling 181

    10.1.1.1 The Flocking Instinct 181

    10.1.1.2 Follow the Leader 181

    10.2 How to Approach and Move Sheep 182

    10.2.1 Methods and Equipment 182

    10.2.2 Approaching and Moving a Group of Sheep 182

    10.2.3 Approaching and Moving an Individual Sheep 184

    10.2.4 Handling Facilities 186

    10.2.5 Special Note: Rams, Lambs and Pregnant Ewes; Use of Dogs/Vehicles 189

    10.3 How to Approach and Move Goats 191

    10.3.1 Methods and Equipment 191

    10.3.2 Moving a Group 191

    10.3.3 Moving an Individual 191

    10.3.4 Handling Facilities 191

    10.3.5 Special Note: Kids, Pregnant Does and Bucks 192

    10.4 How to Restrain a Sheep 193

    10.4.1 Methods and Equipment 193

    10.4.2 Physical Restraint 193

    10.4.3 Training for Restraint 198

    10.5 How to Restrain Goats 200

    10.5.1 Methods and Equipment 200

    10.5.2 Physical Restraint 200

    10.5.3 Training for Restraint 204

    10.6 Special Considerations 204

    Key Points 204

    Self-assessment Questions 205

    References 205

    Further Reading 206

    11 Handling and Restraint of Pigs 207
    Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

    11.1 Behaviour 207

    11.1.1 How this Can Affect Handling 208

    11.1.2 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect When Handling 208

    11.2 How to Approach and Move Pigs 211

    11.2.1 General Methods and Equipment 211

    11.2.2 Moving a Group of Pigs 213

    11.2.3 Moving the Individual 215

    11.2.4 Sows, Boars, Finishers and Piglets 216

    11.3 How to Restrain Pigs 217

    11.3.1 Methods and Equipment 217

    11.3.2 Physical Restraint 218

    11.3.3 Training for Restraint 220

    11.4 Special Considerations 221

    Key Points 221

    Self-assessment Questions 221

    References 221

    Further Reading 222

    12 Handling and Restraint of South American Camelids 223
    Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

    12.1 Behaviour 224

    12.1.1 Alpacas and Llama 225

    12.2 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect When Handling 225

    12.2.1 Handling Facilities 227

    12.3 How to Approach and Halter a Camelid 228

    12.3.1 Approaching Adult Camelids 228

    12.3.2 Approaching Cria 229

    12.3.3 How to Put on a Head Collar/Halter 229

    12.3.4 How to Lead a Camelid 230

    12.4 How to Restrain a Camelid 231

    12.4.1 Methods and Equipment 231

    12.4.2 Physical Restraint 232

    12.4.3 Training Adult Camelids for Restraint 234

    12.5 Training Cria 235

    12.6 Special Considerations 235

    Key Points 236

    Self-assessment Questions 236

    References 236

    Further Reading 237

    13 Handling and Restraint of Poultry and Aviary Birds 239
    William S.M. Justice and Stella J. Chapman

    13.1 Behavioural Considerations 240

    13.1.1 Flight Distance 240

    13.1.2 Environment 240

    13.2 Anatomical Considerations 240

    13.3 How to Restrain Birds 242

    13.3.1 Preparation Prior to Handling 242

    13.3.2 Visual Assessment of Birds 242

    13.4 Handling Techniques for Common Cage and Aviary Species 243

    13.4.1 General Points Regarding the Handling of Poultry 243

    13.4.2 Handling and Restraint of Chickens 243

    13.4.3 Handling and Restraint of Other Poultry 246

    13.4.4 Handling and Restraint of Pigeons and Doves 247

    13.4.5 Handling and Restraint of Small Passerines 250

    13.4.6 Handling and Restraint of Psittacines 251

    Key Points 254

    Self-assessment Questions 254

    References 254

    Further Reading 255

    14 Handling and Restraint of Reptiles 257
    William S.M. Justice and Stella J. Chapman

    14.1 Behaviour and Special Considerations 258

    14.1.1 Lizards 258

    14.1.2 Snakes 258

    14.1.3 Chelonians 259

    14.2 Restraint and Handling of Snakes 259

    14.2.1 Anatomical Considerations 259

    14.2.2 Handling Snakes 260

    14.2.2.1 Non-venomous Snakes 260

    14.2.2.2 Venomous Snakes 262

    14.3 Restraint and Handling of Lizards 264

    14.3.1 Anatomical Considerations 264

    14.3.2 Handling 264

    14.4 Restraint and Handling of Chelonians 265

    14.4.1 Anatomical Considerations 265

    14.4.2 Handling 266

    Key Points 267

    Self-assessment Questions 268

    References 269

    Further Reading 269

    Glossary 271

    Answers to Chapter Questions 273

    Index 285

  • Stella J. Chapman is a veterinarian with a keen interest in animal welfare and behaviour, and the role that the veterinarian has to play in animal husbandry. Stella has lectured at the Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Australia and the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, UK.

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