• Life-Threatening Cardiac Emergencies for the Small Animal Practitioner offers a quick reference to recognizing and treating common cardiac arrhythmias and emergent cardiac conditions in canine and feline patients, designed for fast access during an emergency.

    • Offers quick and easy access to key information for diagnosing and managing arrhythmias and cardiac conditions in dogs and cats
    • Designed for ease of use in the fast-paced emergency setting
    • Presents clear, reproducible ECGs, radiographs, and echocardiograms for reference and comparison
    • Part of the Rapid Reference series providing small animal practitioners with ideal quick references for patient-side guidance
  • Preface ix

    Acknowledgments xi

    Introduction xiii

    1 Normal ECG 1

    Before recording 1

    ECG set up 2

    Recording the ECG 2

    What is measured 3

    Normal ECG 3

    Calculating the heart rate 3

    Calculating the mean electrical axis 5

    Measuring the complexes 5

    2 Bradyarrhythmias 8

    Sinus bradycardia 8

    Sinus arrhythmia 9

    Sinus arrest 10

    Atrial standstill 10

    AV block overview 12

    First-degree AV block 12

    Second-degree AV block 12

    Third-degree AV block 13

    Asystole 15

    Cardiopulmonary arrest 16

    Escape rhythms 20

    3 Tachyarrhythmias 22

    Atrial premature complexes 22

    Ventricular premature complexes 22

    Differentiating SVT from VT 24

    Supraventricular tachycardia 27

    Atrial fibrillation 28

    Ventricular pre-excitation 32

    Re-entrant tachycardia 33

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome 34

    Ventricular tachycardia 35

    Accelerated idioventricular rhythm 38

    Ventricular flutter 39

    Ventricular fibrillation 40

    Torsade de pointes 40

    4 Miscellaneous arrhythmias and cardiac conditions 42

    Artifacts and anomalies 42

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy 42

    AV junctional rhythms 45

    Junctional escape beats 45

    Junctional rhythm 46

    Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome (sick sinus syndrome) 47

    Electrical alternans (pericardial effusion) 48

    Left bundle branch block 50

    Left anterior fascicular block 51

    Right bundle branch block 52

    ST segment abnormalities 52

    T wave abnormalities 53

    Canine congestive heart failure—mitral valve insufficiency 55

    Canine dilated cardiomyopathy 58

    Feline aortic thromboembolism (saddle thrombus) 59

    Feline congestive heart failure 64

    Heartworm—caval syndrome (CS) 68

    Pericardial effusion 73

    5 Electrolyte disturbance and the ECG 77

    Hyperkalemia 77

    Hypokalemia 78

    Hypercalcemia 78

    Hypocalcemia 79

    6 Emergency algorithms 80

    Bradycardia algorithm 80

    Tachycardia algorithm 80

    Asystole algorithm (CPR) 80

    Arrhythmia drug chart 80

    Further reading 86

    Index 000

  • Maureen McMichael, DVM, DACVECC, is a Professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine and Section Chief of the Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care Section at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in Urbana, Illinois, USA.

    Ryan Fries, DVM, DACVIM, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine (cardiologist) at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in Urbana, Illinois, USA.

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