• Diagnosis of Lameness in Dogs provides general practice vets with a practical, step-by-step guide to performing the orthopedic diagnostic exam, including basic diagnostic imaging and advanced techniques such as CT, MRI, ultrasound, and arthroscopy, and arriving at a correct diagnosis. Treatment options are briefly summarized with the focus of the book being on diagnostics—because general practitioners will generally refer lameness cases. This book therefore provides guidance on possible causes of lameness and when to refer, and perhaps more critically, when not to refer.

    Overall, the text enables general practice veterinarians and veterinary students to develop confidence in accurately diagnosing causes of lameness. More than 600 color images depicting the procedures are included throughout the text. A companion website provides video clips of specific lameness conditions to aid in reader comprehension and information retention.

    Written by well-known orthopedic surgeons working in the area of lameness, Diagnosis of Lameness in Dogs also includes information on:

    • General examinations, providing a systematic approach to the examination ensures that multiple problems are not missed
    • Immediate steps to provide urgent care to severely traumatized dogs with hemorrhaging wounds and unstable/open fractures
    • Systemic conditions, neurological disorders, and oncologic diseases that need to be ruled out before arriving at a diagnosis of the problem
    • Specific conditions and diagnostic procedures for the thoracic limb, including bone disease, carpal/distal joints, the elbow joint, and the shoulder joint
    • Specific conditions and diagnostic procedures for the pelvic limb, including bone disease, tarsal/distal joints, the stifle joint, and the hipar joint

    The first book to cover lameness diagnosis in detail, Diagnosis of Lameness in Dogs is a highly useful resource for veterinarians and students interested in improving their orthopedic diagnostic skills through gaining a foundation of relevant knowledge and an understanding of how to apply this knowledge in a field setting.

  • List of Contributors



    About the Companion Website


    1 General Examination

    General Strategy

    Chief Complaint and History

    Rule-Outs: Systemic (Medical) Conditions and Neurologic Disorders

    Differential Diagnosis

    2 Orthopedic Observation

    Distant Observation

    Sit Observation

    Gait Observation

    3 Orthopedic Palpation 1: Standing Examination

    General and Neurologic Examination

    Thoracic Limb

    Pelvic Limb

    4 Orthopedic Palpation 2: Recumbent Examination

    Thoracic Limb

    Pelvic Limb


    5 Thoracic Limb Conditions

    Common General Conditions

    Shoulder Region: Growing Dogs

    Shoulder Region: Mature Dogs

    Elbow Region and Antebrachium: Growing Dogs

    Elbow Region: Mature Dogs

    Carpal Region and Distal Limb: Growing Dogs

    Carpal Region and Distal Limb: Mature Dogs

    6 Pelvic Limb Conditions

    Common General Conditions

    Hip Region: Growing Dogs

    Hip (and Pelvic) Region: Mature Dogs

    Stifle Region: Growing Dogs

    Stifle Region: Mature Dogs

    Tarsal Region and Distal Limb: Growing Dogs

    Tarsal Region and Distal Limb: Mature Dogs


    7 Congenital/Developmental Conditions and Deformities

    Congenital Elbow (Radial) Luxation

    Congenital Elbow (Ulnar) Luxation

    Angular Limb Deformity/Elbow Subluxation

    Carpal Laxity Syndrome

    Genu Recurvatum (Congenital Stifle Hyperextension)

    Tibial Deformity (Pes Varus)

    Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy

    8 Thoracic Limb Lameness in Young Dogs

    Elbow Dysplasia (Medial Coronoid Disease)

    Shoulder Osteochondrosis Dissecans

    Physeal Fractures, Avulsion Fractures

    9 Thoracic Limb Lameness in Mature Dogs

    Elbow Osteoarthritis

    Shoulder Tendinopathy

    Shoulder Luxation in Small Dogs

    Carpal Hyperextension


    Immune-Mediated Poly-arthorpathy

    10 Pelvic Limb Lameness in Young Dogs

    Medial Patellar Luxation

    Lateral Patellar Luxation

    Hip Dysplasia

    Femoral Head Necrosis (Legg–Calve–Perthes Disease) and Related Conditions

    Tarsal/Stifle Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Physeal Fractures, Avulsion Fractures

    11 Pelvic Limb Lameness in Mature Dogs

    Cruciate Disease

    Cruciate Disease and Medial Patellar Luxation

    Hip Osteoarthritis

    Lumbosacral Disease

    Hip Luxation

    Calcaneal Tendon Pathology


    Immune-Mediated Poly-arthorpathy, Septic Arthritis

    12 Multiple Limb Lameness


    Bilateral Stifle Osteochondritis Dissecans and Cruciate Disease

    Bilateral Hip Luxation, Cruciate Disease, and Medial Patellar Luxation

    Bilateral Hip Osteoarthritis and Cruciate Disease



    • Presents practical information on performing the canine lameness examination
    • Improves confidence in correctly identifying causes of lameness in dogs
    • Offers a step-by-step, highly illustrated approach
    • Focuses on the physical exam techniques of observation and palpation, radiography, and advanced diagnostics, including advanced imaging
    • Provides all the information a general practitioner needs when faced with a lame dog
    • Includes access to a companion website with videos depicting specific types of lameness
  • Kei Hayashi, DVM, PhD, Dipl. ACVS, is a Professor at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA