• Written by veterinarians across multiple disciplines with expertise in the canine musculoskeletal system, this book offers an easy-to-use guide for diagnosing lameness in dogs. Canine Lameness focuses on evaluation and diagnostic techniques, with descriptions of the most common reasons for lameness. Arranged by anatomical region, this approach complements the clinical assessment of a patient.

    Designed for ease of use, the book puts all the information needed to evaluate and diagnose a dog’s orthopedic status at the reader’s fingertips. Particular emphasis is placed on orthopedic examination, radiographic anatomy, and abnormal radiographic findings.

    Features of Canine Lameness:

    • Offers a comprehensive guide to diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases causing lameness in dogs
    • Brings clinical examination, diagnostic imaging, and relevant musculoskeletal anatomy together into a single resource
    • Takes a logical, regions-based approach, outlining diagnostic steps and differential diagnoses for each specific area
    • Focuses on commonly encountered conditions while highlighting critical diagnostic steps to ensure other, less common, differential diagnoses are not missed
    • Includes access to a companion website with video clips demonstrating detailed steps of the examination, techniques, and lameness conditions

    Canine Lameness is an excellent resource for veterinarians and staff involved in the diagnosis of lameness in dogs, and will be of great benefit to all animal health professionals working in the area of canine orthopedics.

  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Editor Biography

    About the website

    Part 1: Lameness Diagnosis

    Section I: Lameness Evaluation

    Chapter 1 Subjective Gait Evaluation

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Observation at Rest

    1.3 Observation in Motion

    1.3.1 Presentation

    1.3.2 Gait Patterns

    1.3.3 Head Nod and Pelvic Tilt

    1.3.4 Lameness Characteristics

    1.3.5 Lameness Grading

    1.4 References

    Chapter 2 Objective Gait Analysis

    2.1 Intro

    2.2 Kinetic Analysis

    2.2.1 Force Plate Systems: The Basics

    2.2.2 Force Plate Systems: Kinetic Measurements

    2.2.3 Force Plate Systems: Clinically Reported Values

    2.2.4 Pressure Sensitive Walkway Systems: The Basics

    2.2.5 Pressure Sensitive Walkway Systems: Clinically Reported Values

    2.2.6 Static or Standing Kinetic Analysis

    2.3 Kinematic Analysis

    2.3.1 Description and Measurement of Joint Motion

    2.3.2 Kinematic Systems

    2.3.3 Kinematic Models

    2.3.4 Other Methods of Kinematic Analysis

    2.3.5 Kinematic Variables

    2.4 Making the Best of Your Gait Data Collection

    2.4.1 Habituation

    2.4.2 Animal Handlers

    2.4.3 Velocity and Acceleration

    2.4.4 Marker Application

    2.4.5 Comparing Averages

    2.5 Evaluating Gait Data

    2.5.1 Normalization to Body Weight

    2.5.2 Percent Change

    2.5.3 Gait Symmetry

    2.6 References

    Chapter 3 The Orthopedic Examination

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 The Orthopedic Examination

    3.2.1 History and Signalment

    3.2.2 Visual Exam

    3.2.3 Palpation

    3.3 References

    Chapter 4 The Neurologic Examination

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Neuroanatomy Related to Limb Function

    4.2.1 Anatomical Components of the Nervous System

    4.2.2 Functional Components of the Nervous System

    4.3 The Neurologic Examination

    4.3.1 Mentation Status (Awareness) and Behavior

    4.3.2 Posture

    4.3.3 Gait

    4.3.4 Cranial Nerves

    4.3.5 Postural Reactions

    4.3.6 Muscle Mass and Tone

    4.3.7 Spinal Reflexes

    4.4 Diagnostic Tests

    4.4.1 Survey Radiographs

    4.4.2 Myelography

    4.4.3 Computed Tomography

    4.4.4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    4.4.5 Electrodiagnostic Examination

    4.4.6 Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis

    4.5 References

    Chapter 5 The Rehabilitation Examination

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Passive Range of Motion

    5.2.1 How to Perform Passive Range of Motion Testing

    5.2.2 How to Interpret Passive Range of Motion Testing

    5.3 Joint Play

    5.3.1 How to Perform Joint Play Testing

    5.3.2. How to Interpret Joint Play Testing

    5.4 Flexibility Testing

    5.4.1 How to Perform Flexibility Testing

    5.4.2 How to Interpret Flexibility Testing

    5.5 Strength Testing

    5.5.1 How to Perform Strength Testing

    5.5.2 How to Interpret Strength Testing

    5.6 References

    Chapter 6 The Myofascial Examination

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Characteristics of Myofascial Trigger Points

    6.3 Etiology and Pathophysiology of Myofascial Trigger Points

    6.4 The Myofascial Examination

    6.5 Myofascial Pain Syndrome Patterns Associated with Lameness

    6.6 Clinical Significance

    6.7 References

    Section II: Diagnostic Techniques

    Chapter 7 Arthrocentesis Technique

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Risks and Contraindications

    7.3 Restraint

    7.4 Site Preparation

    7.5 Equipment

    7.6 Approaches

    7.6.1 Carpus

    7.6.2 Elbow

    7.6.3 Shoulder

    7.6.4 Tarsus

    7.6.5 Stifle

    7.6.6 Hip

    7.7 References

    Chapter 8 Diagnostic Joint Anesthesia

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Patient Selection

    8.3 Sedation Protocols

    8.4 Intra-articular Anesthetic Instillation

    8.5 Lameness Evaluation and Interpreting the Effect of Diagnostic Joint Anesthesia

    8.6 References

    Chapter 9 Joint Fluid Analysis and Collection Considerations

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Sample Submission and Prioritization of Diagnostic Tests

    9.3 Gross, Biochemical, and Cytologic Examination

    9.3.1 Gross Appearance

    9.3.2 Protein Concentration

    9.3.3 Total Nucleated Cell Counts

    9.3.4 Cytological Analysis

    9.3.5 Mucin Clot Test

    9.4 Canine Arthropathies

    9.4.1 Suppurative Arthropathies

    9.4.2 Non-suppurative Arthropathies

    9.4.3 Neoplasia

    9.5 References

    Chapter 10 Diagnostic Imaging Techniques in Lameness Evaluation

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Radiography

    10.3 Ultrasonography

    10.4 Computed Tomography

    10.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    10.6 Nuclear Medicine

    10.7 References

    Chapter 11 Diagnostic Approach to Neoplastic Conditions Causing Lameness

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Diagnostic Methods

    11.2.1 Physical Examination

    11.2.2 Fine-needle Aspirate and Biopsy

    11.2.3 Diagnostic Imaging

    11.2.4 Staging

    11.3 Specific Tumors

    11.3.1 Skin and Subcutaneous Neoplasia

    11.3.2 Muscle Neoplasia

    11.3.3 Bone Neoplasia

    11.3.4 Joint Capsule Neoplasia

    11.4 References

    Part 2: Regional Diagnosis

    Section III: Thoracic Lameness

    Chapter 12 Distal Limb Region: Metacarpals, Metatarsals, Digits, Sesamoids, and Associated Structures

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Normal Anatomy

    12.2.1 Thoracic Limb

    12.2.2 Pelvic Limb

    12.2.3 Function, Posture and Carriage

    12.3 Arthritis

    12.4 Fractures

    12.4.1 Metacarpal and Metatarsal Fractures

    12.4.2 Digit Fractures and Luxations

    12.4.3 Sesamoid Disease

    12.5 Conditions of Muscles, Tendon, and Ligaments

    12.5.1 Dorsal Digital Ligament Sprain

    12.5.2 Digital Flexor Muscle and Tendon Injuries

    12.6 Conditions of the Digital and Paw Pads

    12.6.1 Trauma

    12.6.2 Corns

    12.6.3 Abnormal Wear and Migration

    12.6.4 Dermatologic Conditions Causing Lameness

    12.7 Conditions of the Digit/Paw Skin

    12.7.1 Interdigital Web Injuries

    12.7.2 Pododermatitis

    12.7.3 Acral Lick Dermatitis

    12.8 Conditions of the Claws

    12.8.1 Trauma

    12.8.2 Paronychia

    12.8.3 Deformed Claws

    12.8.4 Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy

    12.9 Other Conditions Affecting the Distal Limb Region

    12.9.1 Neurological Conditions

    12.9.2 Dysostoses

    12.9.3 Hypertrophic Osteopathy

    12.9.4 Metabolic Bone Diseases

    12.9.5 Distal Limb Region Neoplasia

    12.10 References

    Chapter 13 Carpal Region

    13.1 Introduction and Common Differential Diagnoses

    13.2 Normal Anatomy and Osteoarthritis

    13.2.1 Immune-mediated Polyarthritis

    13.3 Fractures of the Carpal Region

    13.3.1 Signalment and History

    13.3.2 Physical Examination

    13.3.3 Diagnostics

    13.4 Carpal Hyperextension and Other Carpal Ligamentous Injuries

    13.4.1 Signalment and History

    13.4.2 Physical Examination

    13.4.3 Diagnostics

    13.4.4 Other Carpal Ligamentous Injuries

    13.5 Deformities of the Carpal Region

    13.5.1 Signalment and History

    13.5.2 Physical Examination

    13.5.3 Diagnostics

    13.6 Tendinous and Muscular Lesions of the Carpal Region

    13.7 Other Diseases Affecting the Carpal Region

    13.7.1 Lack or Loss of Carpal Extension

    13.7.2 Lack or Loss of Carpal Flexion

    13.7.3 Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy

    13.7.4 Shearing Injuries

    13.7.5 Carpal Region Neoplasia

    13.7.6 Miscellaneous Other Conditions

    13.8 References

    Chapter 14 Elbow Region

    14.1 Introduction and Common Differential Diagnoses

    14.2 Normal Anatomy and Arthritis

    14.3 Fractures of the Elbow Region

    14.3.1 Signalment and History

    14.3.2 Physical Exam

    14.3.3 Diagnostics

    14.4 Incomplete Ossification of the Humeral Condyle

    14.4.1 Signalment and History

    14.4.2 Physical Exam

    14.4.3 Diagnostics

    14.5 Elbow Dysplasia/Incongruity

    14.6 Medial Compartment Disease

    14.6.1 Signalment and History

    14.6.2 Physical Exam

    14.6.3 Diagnostics

    14.7 Traumatic Fracture of the Medial Coronoid Process

    14.8 Osteochondrosis Dissecans

    14.9 Ununited Anconeal Process

    14.9.1 Signalment and History

    14.9.2 Physical Exam

    14.9.3 Diagnostics

    14.10 Elbow Luxation

    14.10.1 Signalment and History

    14.10.2 Physical Exam

    14.10.3 Diagnostics

    14.11 Panosteitis

    14.11.1 Signalment and History

    14.11.2 Physical Exam

    14.11.3 Diagnostics

    14.12 Septic Arthritis

    14.12.1 Signalment and History

    14.12.2. Physical Exam

    14.12.3 Diagnostics

    14.13 Flexor Enthesopathy

    14.13.1 Signalment and History

    14.13.2 Physical Exam

    14.13.3 Diagnostics

    14.14 Other Diseases Affecting the Elbow Region

    14.14.1 Calcinosis Circumscripta

    14.14.2 Radioulnar Ischemic Necrosis

    14.14.3 Triceps Tendon Disruption

    14.14.4 Elbow Region Neoplasia

    14.14.5 Miscellaneous Other Conditions

    14.15 References

    Chapter 15 Shoulder Region

    15.1 Introduction and Common Differential Diagnoses

    15.2 Normal Anatomy and Osteoarthritis

    15.3 Fractures of the Shoulder Region

    15.4 Medial Shoulder Instability

    15.4.1 Signalment and History

    15.4.2 Physical Exam

    15.4.3 Diagnostics

    15.5 Traumatic shoulder luxation

    15.5.1 Signalment and History

    15.5.2 Physical Exam

    15.5.3 Diagnostics

    15.6 Biceps Brachii Tendinopathy

    15.6.1 Signalment and History

    15.6.2 Physical Exam

    15.6.3 Diagnostics

    15.7 Supraspinatus Tendinopathy

    15.7.1 Signalment and History

    15.7.2 Physical Exam

    15.7.3 Diagnostics

    15.8 Infraspinatus Disease

    15.8.1 Signalment and History

    15.8.2 Physical Exam

    15.8.3 Diagnostics

    15.9 Osteochondrosis Dissecans

    15.9.1 Signalment and History

    15.9.2 Physical Exam

    15.9.3 Diagnostics

    15.10 Other Diseases Affecting the Shoulder Region

    15.10.1 Caudal Glenoid Fragments

    15.10.2 Glenoid Dysplasia

    15.10.3 Adhesive Capsulitis

    15.10.4 Shoulder Region Neoplasia

    15.10.5 Miscellaneous Other Conditions

    15.11 References

    Section IV: Pelvic Lameness

    Chapter 16 Neurological Disease of the Thoracic Limb

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Relevant Anatomy

    16.3. Neurological Diseases Affecting the Thoracic limb

    16.3.1 Myelopathies and Radiculopathies

    16.3.2. Neuropathies (Nerves and Brachial Plexus)

    16.3.3 Myopathies and Junctionopathies

    16.3.4 Other Spinal Diseases Affecting the Thoracic Limb

    16.4 References

    Chapter 17 Neoplastic Conditions of the Thoracic Limb

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Neoplasia of Specific Regions

    17.2.1 Distal Limb Region

    17.2.2. Carpal Region

    17.2.3. Elbow Region

    17.2.4. Shoulder Region

    17.2.5. Nervous System

    17.3 References

    Chapter 18 Tarsal Region

    18.1 Introduction and Common Differential Diagnoses

    18.2 Normal Anatomy

    18.3 Fractures of the Tarsal Region

    18.3.1 Signalment and History

    18.3.2 Physical Exam

    18.3.3 Diagnostics

    18.4 Tarsal Joint Luxations

    18.4.1 Signalment and History

    18.4.2 Physical Exam

    18.4.3 Diagnostics

    18.5 Pathology of the Common Calcanean Tendon

    18.5.1 Traumatic Rupture

    18.5.2 Chronic Gastrocnemius Tendinopathy

    18.5.3 Luxation of the Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon

    18.6 Osteochondrosis Dissecans

    18.6.1 Signalment and History

    18.6.2 Physical Exam

    18.6.3 Diagnostics

    18.7 Other Diseases Affecting the Tarsal Region

    18.7.1 Tarsal Deformities

    18.7.2 Idiopathic Tarsal Hyperflexion

    18.7.3 Idiopathic Tarsal Hyperextension

    18.7.4 Osteochondrosis Fragment Migration into the Deep Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath

    18.7.5 Tarsal Region Neoplasia

    18.7.6 Miscellaneous Other Conditions

    18.8 References

    Chapter 19

    19.1 Introduction and Common Differential Diagnoses

    19.2 Normal Anatomy

    19.2.1 The Stifle Joint

    19.2.2 Muscles of the Stifle Joint

    19.3 Fractures of the Stifle Region

    19.3.1 Patellar Fractures

    19.3.2 Salter-Harris Fractures

    19.4 Cranial Cruciate Ligament Disease

    19.4.1 Signalment and History

    19.4.2 Physical Exam

    19.4.3 Diagnostics

    19.5 Patellar Luxation

    19.5.1 Signalment and History

    19.5.2 Physical Exam

    19.5.3 Diagnostics

    19.6 Stifle Luxation

    19.6.1 Signalment and History

    19.6.2 Physical Exam

    19.6.3 Diagnostics

    19.7 Isolated Caudal Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    19.8 Osteochondrosis Dissecans

    19.9 Patellar Ligament Pathology

    19.9.1 Non-traumatic Patellar (Ligament) Desmopathy

    19.9.2 Patellar Ligament Laceration/Rupture

    19.10 Other Diseases Affecting the Stifle Region

    19.10.1 Angular Limb Deformity

    19.10.2 Gastrocnemius Injury

    19.10.3 Long Digital Extensor Tendon Injury

    19.10.4 Stifle Region Neoplasia

    19.10.5 Miscellaneous Other Conditions

    19.11 References

    Chapter 20 Hip Region

    20.1 Introduction and Common Differential Diagnoses

    20.2 Normal Anatomy

    20.3 Fractures of the Hip Region

    20.3.1 Sacroiliac Joint Luxation and Sacral fractures

    20.3.2 Fractures of the Ilium

    20.3.3 Fractures of the Coxofemoral Joint

    20.4 Coxofemoral Luxation

    20.4.1 Signalment and History

    20.4.2 Physical Exam

    20.4.3 Diagnostics

    20.5 Hip Dysplasia

    20.5.1 Signalment and History

    20.5.2 Physical Exam

    20.5.3 Diagnostics

    20.6 Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    20.6.1 Signalment and History

    20.6.2 Physical Exam

    20.6.3 Diagnostics

    20.7 Muscle Contractures

    20.7.1 Gracilis Contracture

    20.7.2 Quadriceps Contracture

    20.8 Iliopsoas Tendinopathy

    20.8.1 Signalment and History

    20.8.2 Physical Exam

    20.8.3 Diagnostics

    20.9 Other Diseases Affecting the Hip Region

    20.9.1 Sacroiliac Joint

    20.9.2 Septic Arthritis

    20.9.3 Muscle Strains and Tears

    20.9.4 Hip Region Neoplasia

    20.9.5 Miscellaneous Other Conditions

    20.10 References

    Chapter 21 Neurological Disease of the Pelvic Limb

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Relevant Anatomy

    21.3 Neurological Diseases Affecting the Pelvic Limb

    21.3.1 Myelopathies and Radiculopathies

    21.3.2 Neuropathies (Nerves and Lumbosacral Plexus)

    21.3.3 Myopathies and Junctionopathies

    21.3.4 Other Neurologic and Spinal Diseases Affecting the Pelvic Limb

    21.4 References

    Chapter 22 Neoplastic Conditions of the Pelvic Limb

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Neoplasia of Specific Regions

    22.2.1. Distal Limb Region

    22.2.2 Tarsal Region

    22.2.3 Stifle Region

    22.2.4 Hip Region

    22.2.5 Nervous System

    22.3 References

    Appendices

    Glossary of Terms

    Index

  • Felix Duerr, Dr. Med. Vet., MS, DACVS-SA, DECVS, DACVSMR, is Associate Professor of Small Animal Orthopedics at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

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