• Revised and updated, the eighth edition of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals remains the essential resource for detailed information on farm animal anatomy and physiology.

    • Offers a revised edition to this comprehensive guide to the anatomy and physiology of farm animals
    • Presents learning objectives in each chapter for the first time
    • Adds new material on endocrine and metabolic regulation of growth and body composition
    • Features additional illustrations to enhance comprehension
    • Includes a companion website that offers supplemental content, including word roots, clinical cases, study and practice questions, the images from the book and additional images, diagrams, and videos to enhance learning.
  • Dedication xii

    About the Companion Website xiii

    Chapter 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 1

    Anatomical Nomenclature, Directional Terms, and Planes of Section 3

    Microscopic Anatomy: Animal Cells and Tissues 5

    Epithelial Tissues 6

    Connective Tissues 11

    Muscle Tissue 13

    Nervous Tissue 15

    The General Plan of the Animal Body 15

    Chapter 2: Anatomy and Physiology of the Cell 21

    Properties of Life 22

    Chemical Composition of the Cell 24

    Water 24

    Proteins 25

    Lipids 26

    Carbohydrates 28

    Inorganic Substances 29

    Acids, Bases, and pH 29

    Microscopic Study of the Cell 29

    Light Microscopy 30

    Electron Microscopy 32

    The Cell Membrane 33

    Structure of the Membrane 33

    Intercellular Contact and Adhesion 35

    Transport Across Cell Membranes 36

    Simple and Facilitated Diffusion 36

    Osmosis 38

    Active Transport 40

    Membrane Potentials and Excitable Cells 41

    Resting Membrane Potential 41

    Excitable Cells and Action Potentials 42

    Membrane Receptors and Intracellular Signaling 43

    Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Organelles 47

    Cytoplasm 47

    The Golgi Apparatus 47

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ribosomes 47

    Mitochondria 47

    Lysosomes 48

    Other Structures 48

    Nucleus 49

    Structure of the Nucleus 49

    DNA and DNA Replication 50

    RNA: Transcription and Translation 51

    Biotechnology 53

    Cell Division 55

    Mitosis 55

    Meiosis 56

    Regulation of Cell Growth and Replication 57

    Chapter 3: Embryology 59

    Development of Germ Layers 60

    Principles of Differentiation 63

    Neurulation 63

    Mesodermal Differentiation 64

    Teratogenesis 66

    Chapter 4: The Skeletal System 69

    Functions of Bones 70

    Terminology 70

    Classification of Bones According to Gross Appearance 73

    Axial Skeleton 75

    Skull 75

    Vertebral Column 79

    Sternum and Ribs 82

    Appendicular Skeleton 83

    Thoracic Limbs 83

    Pelvic Limbs 87

    Chapter 5: Microscopic Anatomy and Growth and Development of Bone 91

    Microscopic Anatomy and Formation of Bone 92

    Ossification 94

    Endochondral (Intracartilaginous) Ossification 94

    Intramembranous Ossification 96

    Physiology of Bone 96

    Bone Mechanics and Remodeling 96

    Calcium of Bone 97

    Fractures and Fracture Healing 97

    Other Pathologic Conditions 99

    Chapter 6 Joints 101

    Classification of Joints 102

    Fibrous Joints 102

    Cartilaginous Joints 103

    Synovial Joints 103

    Other Synovial Structures 104

    Movements of Joints 104

    Types of Synovial Joints 106

    Joints of the Axial Skeleton 107

    Joints of the Appendicular Skeleton 108

    Joints of the Thoracic Limb 108

    Joints of the Pelvic Limb 111

    Pathology of Joints and Related Structures 117

    Chapter 7 Anatomy of the Muscular System 121

    Anatomical Nomenclature of Muscles 122

    Types of Muscle Tissue 122

    Skeletal Muscle Organization 122

    Muscle Attachments 123

    Functional Grouping of Muscles 124

    Synovial Structures 126

    Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 127

    Extrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 130

    Muscles Acting on the Shoulder Joint 131

    Muscles Acting on the Elbow 132

    Muscles Acting on the Distal Limb 133

    Muscles of the Pelvic Limb 135

    Muscles Acting on the Hip Joint 135

    Muscles Acting on the Stifle 141

    Muscles Acting on the Hock 142

    Muscles Acting on the Digit 142

    Muscles of the Head 143

    Muscles of Mastication 143

    Muscles of Facial Expression 144

    Other Muscles of the Head 144

    Muscles of the Trunk and Neck 145

    Extensors of the Vertebral Column 145

    Flexors of the Vertebral Column 150

    Abdominal Muscles 150

    Muscles of Respiration 151

    Chapter 8: The Equine Foot and Passive Stay Apparatus 153

    Structure of the Foot 154

    Bones and Cartilages 154

    Cornified Tissues 155

    Tendons 159

    Ligaments 160

    Synovial Structures 162

    Function 163

    Concussion and Storage of Energy 163

    Stay Apparatus 163

    Thoracic Limb 164

    Pelvic Limb 166

    Chapter 9: Microscopic Anatomy and Physiology of Muscle 171

    Skeletal Muscle 172

    Structure 172

    Excitation, Contraction, and Relaxation 175

    Strength of Contraction 179

    Drugs That Affect Skeletal Muscle Function 181

    Types of Muscle Contraction 182

    Smooth Muscle 182

    Structure 183

    Stress–Relaxation 183

    Contraction and Relaxation 184

    Role and Sources of Calcium 184

    Action Potentials and Slow Waves 185

    Autonomic Innervation 186

    Cardiac Muscle 187

    Excitation and Contraction 187

    Cardiac Hypertrophy 188

    Chapter 10: Anatomy of the Nervous System 189

    Microscopic Neuroanatomy 192

    Embryology 194

    Central Nervous System 197

    Brain 197

    Meninges 200

    Spinal Cord 202

    Peripheral Nervous System 205

    Spinal Nerves 205

    Cranial Nerves 206

    Autonomic Nervous System 206

    Sympathetic Nervous System 208

    Parasympathetic Nervous System 211

    Enteric Nervous System 212

    Chapter 11:Physiology of the Nervous System 213

    Functional Regions of the Neuron 214

    Physiology of the Nerve Impulse 214

    Conduction Velocity and Myelination 216

    Synaptic Transmission 217

    Neurotransmitters 220

    Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle 221

    Reflexes Involving Skeletal Muscle Contraction 222

    Voluntary Movement 223

    Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System 224

    Regulation of Autonomic Nervous System Activity 224

    Autonomic Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors 226

    Regeneration and Repair in the Nervous System 227

    Chapter 12: Sense Organs 229

    Sensory Receptors 230

    Somatosensation 232

    Pain 232

    Proprioception 233

    Touch 234

    Visceral Sensations 234

    Chemical Senses 234

    Gustation 234

    Olfaction 235

    Hearing and Balance 236

    External Ear 236

    Middle Ear 238

    Internal Ear 238

    Physiology of Hearing 239

    Mechanisms of Balance 242

    Vision 245

    Ocular Adnexa 245

    Globe 247

    Lens 250

    Visual Field and Light Path 251

    Visual Pathways of the Brain 251

    Chapter 13: Endocrinology 253

    Hormones and Their Receptors 254

    Chemical Classes of Hormones 254

    Eicosanoids 255

    Hormone Receptors 256

    Cellular Effects of Peptide

    Hormones 256

    Cellular Effects of Steroid and Thyroid Hormones 259

    Negative and Positive Feedback Regulation 259

    Hypothalamopituitary Axis 260

    Hormones of the Neurohypophysis 262

    Hormones of the Adenohypophysis 263

    Growth Hormone 263

    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone 264

    Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone 265

    Other Endocrine Glands 268

    Parathyroid Glands 268

    Pancreatic Islets 270

    Epiphysis (Pineal Gland) 271

    Chapter 14: The Integument 273

    Integument 274

    Skin 274

    Epidermis 274

    Dermis 275

    Hypodermis 276

    Adnexa of the Skin 276

    Hair 276

    Glands 278

    Modified Epidermis 279

    Hooves 280

    Horns 282

    Dewclaws 283

    Chestnuts and Ergots 283

    Coat Color in Horses 283

    Wool 285

    Chapter 15: Blood and Other Body Fluids 287

    Blood 288

    Formed Elements of Blood and Hematopoiesis 289

    Erythrocytes 290

    Platelets 293

    Leukocytes 294

    Plasma and Serum 295

    Blood pH 296

    Hemostasis and Coagulation 296

    Platelets and the Endothelium 297

    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Coagulation Pathways 297

    Lymph 300

    Serous Fluids 300

    Chapter 16: Body Defenses and the Immune System 301

    Nonspecific Defenses 302

    Specific Immune Response 304

    B Lymphocytes 304

    Immunoglobulins 305

    T Cells and Cell‐Mediated Immunity 306

    Lymphocyte Origin, Development, and Residence 308

    Active and Passive Immunities 308

    Immunological Surveillance 308

    Lymphatic System 309

    Lymphatic Vessels 309

    Lymph Nodes 309

    Spleen 312

    Thymus 313

    Tonsils 314

    Chapter 17: Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System 315

    Heart 316

    Pericardium 316

    Cardiac Anatomy 317

    Vessels 320

    Blood Vessels 320

    Lymphatic Vessels 320

    Pulmonary Circulation 320

    Systemic Circulation 321

    Aorta 322

    Arterial Distribution to the Head 323

    Arterial Distribution to the

    Thoracic Limb 323

    Arterial Distribution to the Pelvic Limb 324

    Veins 325

    Cranial Vena Cava 326

    Caudal Vena Cava 327

    Portal System 327

    Fetal Circulation 327

    Chapter 18: Physiology of the Heart and

    Circulation 331

    Basic Design and Function of the Cardiovascular System 332

    Cardiac Cycle 333

    Systole 336

    Diastole 336

    Heart Sounds and Murmurs 336

    Imaging the Heart 337

    Electrical Activity of the Heart 337

    Sinoatrial Node and Heart Rate 337

    Atrioventricular Node and Other Specialized Conductive Cells in the Heart 339

    Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias 339

    Cardiac Output and Its Regulation 340

    Ventricular Filling and Stroke Volume 340

    Cardiac Contractility and Stroke Volume 341

    Structure and Function of Blood Vessels 341

    Microscopic Structure of Blood Vessels 341

    Function of Blood Vessels 342

    Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure and Blood Volume 344

    Neural Reflexes 345

    Humoral Agents 345

    Paracrine Agents 346

    Cardiovascular Function During Exercise and Hypovolemia 346

    Chapter 19 The Respiratory System 349

    Upper Respiratory Tract 350

    Nose 350

    Paranasal Sinuses 352

    Pharynx 354

    Larynx 354

    Trachea and Bronchi 357

    Thorax 357

    Lungs 358

    Pleura 360

    Physiology of Respiration 360

    Ventilation 360

    Gas Exchange 363

    Gas Transport in Blood 365

    Control of Ventilation 366

    Chapter 20: Anatomy of the Digestive System 369

    Organization of the Digestive System 370

    Mouth 371

    Teeth 372

    Tongue 377

    Pharynx 378

    Tonsils 378

    Esophagus 380

    Simple Stomach 380

    Ruminant Stomach 381

    Ruminoreticulum 384

    Omasum 385

    Abomasum 385

    Small Intestine 385

    Large Intestine 387

    Ruminants 387

    Pig 387

    Horse 388

    Peritoneal Features 388

    Accessory Digestive Organs 389

    Salivary Glands 389

    Pancreas 389

    Liver 391

    Chapter 21: Physiology of Digestion 395

    Pregastric Physiology 397

    Prehension and Chewing 397

    Saliva and Salivary Glands 397

    Swallowing 398

    Ruminant Forestomach 398

    Fermentative Digestion 398

    Forestomach Motility 400

    Reticular, or Esophageal, Groove 400

    Omasum 401

    Gastric Physiology 401

    Gastric Glands and Secretions 401

    Gastric Motility 402

    Physiology of the Small Intestine, Exocrine Pancreas, and Liver 403

    Small Intestine Secretions and Motility 403

    Exocrine Pancreas 404

    Liver Digestive Function and Secretion of Bile 406

    Nutrient Absorption in the Small Intestine 407

    Physiology of the Cecum and Colon 409

    Cecum and Colon of the Horse 410

    Rectum and Defecation 410

    Neuroendocrine Control of Feeding 411

    Chapter 22: Nutrition and Metabolism 413

    Nutrition 414

    Metabolism 414

    Absorptive State: Anabolism 415

    Postabsorptive State: Catabolism 417

    Energy Needs During Exercise 418

    Blood Glucose in Ruminants 419

    Ketosis 419

    Chapter 23: The Urinary System 421

    Anatomy of the Kidney 422

    Blood and Nerve Supply 424

    Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra 424

    Micturition 426

    Overview of Function and Histology

    of the Kidneys 426

    Glomerular Filtration 429

    Proximal Tubule Transport 430

    Concentration and Dilution of Urine: Role of the Loop of Henle and Collecting Duct Transport 431

    Sodium Chloride and Water Reabsorption by the Loop of Henle 432

    Collecting Duct Transport and Antidiuretic Hormone 433

    Osmotic Regulation of Antidiuretic

    Hormone 434

    Polyuria and Polydipsia 434

    Sodium, Potassium, and Aldosterone 434

    Urine Acidification 436

    Regulation of Acid‐Base Balance 436

    Extracellular and Intracellular Buffers 436

    Classification of Alkalosis and Acidosis and Compensation 438

    Chapter 24: Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System 441

    Testis 442

    Epididymis 444

    Ductus Deferens 444

    Scrotum 445

    Inguinal Canal 447

    Descent of the Testis 447

    Castration 449

    Accessory Sex Glands 449

    Ampullae 450

    Vesicular Glands 450

    Prostate Gland 450

    Bulbourethral Glands 451

    Penis 451

    Prepuce 453

    Muscles of the Male Genitalia 453

    Blood and Nerve Supply of the Male Genitalia 453

    Chapter 25: Physiology of Male Reproduction 455

    Seminiferous Tubules and Spermatogenesis 456

    Seminiferous Tubules 456

    Germ Cells and Spermatogenesis 457

    Spermatozoa Morphology

    and Spermatogenesis 457

    Rates and Timing of Spermatogenesis 460

    Epididymis 460

    Semen and Semen Technology 461

    Hormones of Male Reproduction 462

    Endocrine Regulation of Testicular Function 462

    Testosterone and Its Effects 463

    Erection and Ejaculation 463

    Chapter 26: Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System 465

    Ovaries 466

    Uterine Tubes 468

    Uterus 469

    Vagina 471

    Vestibule and Vulva 472

    Blood and Nerve Supply of the Female Reproductive Tract 473

    Chapter 27: The Ovary and Estrous Cycles 475

    Oogenesis 476

    Secondary Follicles 476

    Hormones and Follicular Development 477

    Ovulation 481

    Luteinizing Hormone Surge 481

    Spontaneous and Reflex Ovulators 481

    Seasonal Transition 481

    Corpus Luteum 482

    Phases of the Estrous Cycle 483

    Proestrus 484

    Estrus 484

    Metestrus 484

    Diestrus and Anestrus 484

    Puberty 484

    Specifics of Selected Estrous Cycles 485

    Mare 485

    Cow 485

    Ewe 486

    Sow 487

    Chapter 28:Pregnancy and Parturition 489

    Fertilization 490

    Spermatozoa Transport and Viability 490

    Gamete Fusion and Early Embryonic Development 491

    Implantation and Placentation 493

    Hormones of Pregnancy 496

    Progesterone 496

    Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin 497

    Relaxin 497

    Pregnancy Diagnosis 497

    Parturition 498

    Late Gestation 498

    Initiation of Parturition 498

    Oxytocin 499

    Fetal Presentations and Delivery 499

    Dystocia 500

    Chapter 29: Anatomy and Physiology of the Mammary Glands 501

    Mammary Glands of the Cow 502

    Suspensory Apparatus 504

    Blood Supply 504

    Lymphatic Vessels 506

    Microscopic Anatomy of the Mammary Gland 506

    Mammary Glands of Sheep and Goats 508

    Mammary Glands of Swine 508

    Mammary Glands of the Horse 509

    Physiology of Lactation 509

    Composition of Milk 509

    Milk Secretion 510

    Lactogenesis 511

    Galactogenesis 512

    Milk Ejection or Letdown 513

    Colostrum 514

    Cessation of Lactation 515

    Chapter 30: Poultry 517

    Integument 518

    Body Design 520

    Skeleton and Bone 522

    Musculature 524

    Gastrointestinal System 524

    Respiratory System 527

    Ventilation and Gas Exchange 528

    Cardiovascular System 530

    Lymphatic System 531

    Urinary System 531

    Female Reproductive System 534

    Egg Formation and Oviposition 535

    Male Reproductive System 537

    Sex Chromosomes 538

    Reproduction and Photoperiods 538

    Appendix: Abbreviations 539

    Bibliography 545

    Index 547

  • Anna Dee Fails, DVM, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

    Christianne Magee, DVM, PhD, Dip ACT, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

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